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10 Types of Type-2 Diabetes Medications and How They Work

10 Types of Type-2 Diabetes Medications and How They Work

To effectively manage type 2 diabetes, a multimodal strategy is frequently needed, with medication being a key component in regulating blood sugar levels and averting complications. There are many different kinds of drugs, each with a special benefit and mode of action. To help people efficiently manage their disease and enhance their general health, we will examine the 8 most popular forms of type 2 diabetes drugs in this post.

Metformin: The First-Line Medication

Metformin is the cornerstone of type-2 diabetes treatment due to its efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness. It primarily lowers hepatic glucose synthesis, lowering the quantity of glucose delivered into the bloodstream. Metformin also slightly lowers the absorption of glucose in the stomach and increases the sensitivity of muscle cells to insulin, resulting in increased uptake of glucose. These combined activities help maintain basal blood glucose levels within a normal range, vital for the long-term control of diabetes.

Sulfonylureas: Stimulating Insulin Production

Sulfonylureas act by stimulating the beta cells of the pancreas to release more insulin. They achieve this by binding to specific receptors on pancreatic cells, leading to the closure of potassium channels and subsequent cell depolarization, which stimulates insulin release. Although effective in reducing blood glucose levels, their use is sometimes limited by the risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain.

Meglitinides: Insulin Secretagogues with Fast Action

Meglitinides encourage the pancreas to release insulin, much like sulfonylureas, although they work faster and have a shorter half-life. To manage postprandial glucose rises, a crucial part of diabetes care, this class of drug is administered right before meals. Short-acting insulin secretagogues lessen the possibility of hypoglycemia, a typical side effect.

Thiazolidinediones: Enhancing Sensitivity to Insulin

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) function by improving peripheral insulin sensitivity, which raises muscle and adipose tissue absorption of glucose and lowers insulin resistance. They also moderately inhibit the liver’s ability to produce glucose. Targeted by TZDs, the PPAR-gamma pathway is a collection of nuclear receptors that is essential for controlling glucose metabolism and fatty acid accumulation.

DPP-4 Inhibitors

Incretin hormones are generated by the gut throughout the day, and blood glucose levels rise after meals. DPP-4 inhibitors assist control of blood glucose levels by extending the activity of these hormones. By enhancing insulin synthesis and release from pancreatic beta cells and decreasing the generation of glucose in the liver, incretins contribute to blood glucose regulation. These drugs are helpful since hypoglycemia is not a common side effect.

GLP-1 Receptor Agonists

Compared to DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists more significantly stimulate the incretin system, resulting in large drops in blood sugar and frequent weight loss. These medications increase glucose-dependent insulin release, inhibit glucagon secretion, and slow stomach emptying by imitating the actions of the natural hormone GLP-1. For many individuals with type-2 diabetes, this drug class is very helpful due to its weight loss effect.

Glucose Reabsorption Is Blocked by SGLT2 Inhibitors

By inhibiting the kidneys’ ability to reabsorb glucose, encouraging urine excretion of glucose, and lowering blood glucose levels overall, SGLT2 inhibitors provide a novel treatment strategy. Diabetes is a risk factor for heart and kidney disorders, thus in addition to enhancing glycemic management, they also have positive effects on the heart and kidneys.

Read More: Type 1 vs. Type 2 diabetes: Differences between type 1 and type 2 diabetes

Inhibitors of Alpha-Glucosidase: Delaying the Absorption of Carbohydrates

The effect of consuming carbohydrates on blood sugar levels is lessened by alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. By preventing the small intestine’s enzymes from converting complex carbohydrates into glucose, they reduce the absorption of glucose and lessen the severity of glucose spikes that occur after meals.

A combination therapy

One that targets various pathways can optimize blood glucose management by utilizing diverse pharmaceutical classes. Using this method can increase efficacy and lessen adverse effects related to using larger dosages of a single drug.

Including CBD Oil in the Treatment of Diabetes

Emerging research suggests that CBD oil holds promise as a potential adjunct therapy for managing diabetes due to its anti-inflammatory properties and potential ability to lower blood glucose levels. To ensure its safety and effectiveness in managing Diabetes, use CBD oil products that are derived from high-grade hemp plants and rigorously tested for purity and potency. The Full Spectrum Tincture and other CBD oil products from Cannazo India undergo rigorous testing at accredited labs to guarantee their superior quality. Under AYUSH, these medications are authorized and licensed in India.

Full Spectrum Tincture


Managing type-2 diabetes involves tailoring treatment plans to individual needs. With various medication options and emerging therapies like CBD oil, personalized approaches can improve glycemic control and quality of life.


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